Study of placental shape and histopathological changes in pregnant ladies with preeclampsia
Keywords:Pregnancy, Placenta, Pre-eclampsia, morbidity, mortality
Objective: To discover the morbid changes (macroscopic and microscopic) in placenta in cases of preeclampsia and to correlate the findings with birth weight and outcome of new born babies in comparison with normotensive mothers.
Methods: A case control study carried out in Babylon teaching for maternity and children Hospital, in a period of 12 months from Jan. 2017 to the end of Dec. 2017. One hundred twenty pregnant women were enrolled in the current study 60 normotensive pregnant women and 60 patients with preeclampsia. The placenta of the participants was studied (morphologically and hist/opathologically), fetal outcome whether alive or dead was recorded and neonatal birth weight was assessed.
Results: In the present study, it was observed that weight and dimensions of placenta were less in study group when compared with control group while retroplacental clots are more significantly common in study group more than control group. The mean neonatal birth weight was more in normal pregnant ladies also fetal outcome is significantly better in normotensive group due to normal placental conditions. Histopathological study showed significant number of syncytial knots, trophoblastic basement membrane thickness, cytotrophoblastic cell proliferation, areas of fibrinoid necrosis, hyalinization, calcification and areas of infarction.
Conclusion: Preeclampsia has effects on the patient's placenta by decrease its dimension and weight in addition to presence of retroplacental clots, that is due to several histopathological changes that affect the normal functions of it which lead to reduce the neonatal birth weight and may result in intra uterine death, so we must screen about this disease as early as possible to discover and manage it earlier and decrease its complications in high risk pregnancies.