Epidemiological Investigation of Neonatal Jaundice in Tikrit City: Assessing Neonatal Risk Factors from 2022 to 2023
Keywords:Jaundice, Neonatal, Epidemiology, Iraq
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of neonatal jaundice and explore associated risk factors in Tikrit City, Iraq.
Methods: The current study was a cross sectional study involved 312 neonates (204 of them with jaundice and 108 without jaundice ), attending Salahaddin General hospital from 1st October 2022 to 30th January 2023. The Study sample was convenient . Jaundiced and Non-jaundiced neonates were enrolled into the study when they enter the wards of pediatrics and neonatal intensive care unites in Salahaddin General Hospital and those visits outpatient clinics of pediatricians and the general population during a free neonatal jaundice screening campaign in Tikrit City.
Results: The prevalence of neonatal jaundice is (9.2%). The most frequent cases was having total serum bilirubin(TSB) level ≤18 milligram/dc liter(mg\dl) (84.8%).The mean ±standard deviation (SD) of hyperbilirubinemia level is (15 ± 3.366 mg\dl ) and the high TSB level was reported among male gender(58.3%).The percent of preterm babies was (33.3%) of total sample .The most cases had normal weight (66.7%) at time of delivery ,mean ±SD of weight is (2698.5±693.54gram) and had no bruises or hematoma as cephalohematoma (89.2%).There was no blood diseases in about (72.5%) of total sample and no history of infection in (68.1%) of cases. The most frequent methods of feeding was breast feeding (39.7%). Regarding to time of appearance of jaundice, the most frequent cases were among those with age group (≤5 days )(89.7%) .The mean±SD for age of neonate at time of admission is (6.2±3.6 day).
Blood group incompatibility(ABO incompatibility) was found in (60.8%) of cases with TSB level ≤18 mg/dl and (11.3%) of cases of TSB level <18 mg\dl . While Rhesus incompatibility(Rh incompatibility) was found in (13.2%) of cases with TSB level ≤18 mg/dl .
Conclusion: This study highlights a prevalence of 9.2% for neonatal jaundice in Tikrit City and identifies important risk factors such as blood group incompatibility and preterm birth. Early detection and appropriate management of neonatal jaundice are crucial to prevent potential complications and ensure optimal neonatal care.
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