The Correlation of age and gender with prevalence of histopathological patterns of thyroid diseases among Iraqi patients


  • Sala Jafar Nadhum Educational Labratory, Medical City, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Adil R. Alsaadawi Educational Labratory, Medical City, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.



nodular hyperplasia, Thyroid, Papillary carcinoma


Objectives:  The aim of this study  was to investigate the prevalence of  histopathological  patterns of thyroid lesions and their relation to age and gender in patients underwent total or near total and partial  thyroidectomy.

 Methods: 430  biopsy blocks examined for patients who had undergone total or near total and partial  thyroidectomy for  both non-neoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions, between January 2018 to December  2020 at Surgical Department, Medical city, Baghdad, Iraq.

Results:  Out of 430  thyroidectomy specimens, 275 (64%) cases of non-neoplastic lesions, and 155 (36%) cases of neoplastic lesions were present. There were 63 males and 367  females with a male to female ratio of 1:5.6. The age ranged in males  from 12 to 83 years with a mean age of 47.5 years and the age ranged in females from 10-68 years with a mean age of 39 years. In non-neoplastic lesions, the predominant lesion was the nodular hyperplasia  with 233 (84.7%) cases followed by Hashimoto thyroiditis with 24 (8.7%) . In neoplastic lesions, papillary carcinoma was the commonest lesion with 98 (63.2%) cases followed by follicular carcinoma with 11 (7%) cases.

Conclusion :

Nodular colloid goiter was the most common non –neoplastic lesion with female predominance . Papillary carcinoma was the most frequent thyroid cancer accounting for 84.4% of thyroid cancers.  with micropapillary  variant making 44.89 % with most cases occurring in the third and forth decade.There appears to be a slightly increased trend of papillary carcinoma diagnosis. The present study highlights the necessity for time to time assessment of neoplastic lesions in young and middle-aged female for initial detection.


1. Garber JR, Cobin RH, Gharib H. Clinical Practice Guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocr Pract. 2013;19:175
2. Maitra A AA, Kumar V, Abbas AK FN, Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2008
3. Kopperundevi V. Histopathological review of thyroid swellings a retrospective study. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016;2(5):10–13. [Google Scholar].
4. Urmiladevi P, Sravani P, Atla B, Kumar SS, Reddy KS, Lavanya L, Lahari MV. Clinico-histopathological study of thyroid lesions in a tertiary care center over a period of one year. J.Evid Based Med Healthc. 2018;5(32):2374–9. doi: 10.18410/jebmh/2018/490. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
5. Lloyd: WHO Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs (IARC WHO Classification of Tumours), 4th Edition, 2017,AJSP: Reviews and Reports 2017;22 :209.
6. Gole S et al. Profile Of Thyroid Neoplasms With Special Focus On Interesting Cases: A Hospital Based 12 Year Longitudinal Study. The Internet Journal of Pathology. 2013; 14(1):1-13
7. De Lellis RA, Lloyd RV, Heitz PU, Eng C. World Health Organization Classification of tumors. Pathology and genetics of tumors of endocrine organs. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2004.
8.Follicular thyroid carcinoma. Lloyd RV,Osamura RY,Klöppel G,Rosai J,eds.WHO Classification of tumors of Endocrine Organs. 4th ed. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2017.
9. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006;130:984
10. (Endocr Pathol 2005;16:279)
11. Synopsis for pathologists: Mod Pathol 2018;31:39, Histopathology 2018;72:53 Endocr Pathol 2015;26:191, Wikipedia: Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features [Accessed 25 April 2018], Diagnostic Histopathology 2016;22:171
12. Xu B. Papillary thyroid carcinoma overview. website.
13. Fagin JA, Wells SA Jr. Biologic and Clinical Perspectives on Thyroid Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Sep 15. 375 (11):1054-67. [Medline]. [Full Text].
14. Salama SI, Abdullah LS, Al-Qahtani MH, Al-Maghrabi JA. Histopathological pattern of thyroid lesions in western region of Saudi Arabia. New Egypt J Med. 2009;40(6);580– 5.
15. Albasri A, Sawaf Z, Hussainy AS, Alhujaily A. Histopathological patterns of thyroid disease in AlMadinah region of Saudi Arabia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(14):5565–70. APJCP.2014.15.14.5565
16. Fahim et al., (2012)
17. (Mirzakarimov et al., 2012)
18. (Rahman et al., 2013)
19. Veyseller et al 2009
20. (Darwish et al., 2006)
21. Aksoy F, Demirhan H, Yıldırım YS, Ertas B, Açıkalın R, Kumral T, & Bayraktar G. Total thyroidectomy in benign thyroid diseases. J Ear Nose Throat. 2009;19:299–303.
22. Ghafoor A, Sajjad A, Khan ZMA. Histopathological pattern of enlarged thyroid gland. Gomal J Med Sci. 2015;13(4):1.
23. Khulaif K Alanazi1 , Laila S Seada2 , Salman N Al Harbi1 , Muhannad A Almohaimeed1 1. Medical Intern, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia 2. Consultant of Histopathology, King Salman Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabi
24. 7. Abdulmughni YA, Al-Hureibi MA, Al-Hureibi KA, Ghafoor MA, Al-Wadan AH, Al-Hureibi YA. Thyroid cancer in Yemen. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:55–9.
25. Abdulkareem KF. Surgical Pathology of Thyroid Biopsies. Thi-Qar Med J (TQMJ). 2010;4(2):47–52
26.Ahn D, Heo SJ, Park JH, Kim JH, Sohn JH, Park JY, et al. Clinical relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis andpapillary thyroid cancer. Acta Oncol. 2011;50(8):1228–34.
27.3109/0284186X.2011.602109 10. Guarino V, Castellone MD, Avilla E, Melillo RM. Thyroid cancer and inflammation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;1:94– 102.




How to Cite

Nadhum, S. J., & Alsaadawi, A. R. (2021). The Correlation of age and gender with prevalence of histopathological patterns of thyroid diseases among Iraqi patients. Iraq Medical Journal, 5(3), 85–88.